Aberrant - Descriptive term applied to actions or things which deviate from what is considered normal and proper by the person(s) applying the term.

Amoral - Only sub-human beings are amoral. To be amoral is to be unaware of the Game of Life at both the unconscious and conscious levels. Amoral beings are only pieces, never players, in the Game of Life. An amoral species is doomed to extinction. Only a moral species can continue to evolve without mutating physically.

Art - A process which uses entertainment to expand creativity. This is usually done symbolically through unconscious stimulation of the mind. Art is similar in its social function to dreaming. Art reflects the creativity of a culture.

Asymptotically - A word which refers to a process by which something is always getting closer to something else but never reaches it.

Autopoiesis - The process within living cells by which protein creates DNA while DNA creates proteins. Neither can create itself by itself, but together both can create each other. This term was first coined by Francisco J. Varela and Humberto R. Maturana in 1974. Its meaning is broadened in the theory of Creative Transformation to include any creative exchange of complementary information such that a new epiphenomenon arises.

Bacteria - The set of all free-living cells without a well-defined nucleus; the DNA may be diffused throughout the cytoplasm. (Monera)

Behavior - Divided into subjective and objective behavior. Subjective behavior refers to actions observable only by the person behaving, e.g., thinking. Objective behavior refers to actions observable by more than one person, e.g., speaking.

Behaviorism - A system of psychology and psychotherapy which states that all models of behavior must be based entirely on measurable objective behavior. Behaviorism has been effective in predicting and controlling simple animal and human behavior. It has not been shown to increase creativity in any way.

Belief - A belief is a state of mind in which someone imagines something to be true. In science there are no beliefs but only probabilities of certain relationships holding under certain circumstances. In science there is never certainty. Only ideologies propound certainties about nature.

Biomass - The total mass of all living creatures which inhabit a specific environment at any given instant. The percentage of the total biomass taken up by a given species is a measure of the biological success of that species in that environment at that instant.

Biosphere - The envelope of life which surrounds the Earth. It includes all life forms on water, land, or in the air. According to Teilhard de Chardin the biosphere is the precursor to the Noosphere. The Biosphere includes the biomass of the Earth.

Bureaucracy - An organization which destroys truth by seeking to destroy all means of detecting its errors and shortcomings. A bureaucracy operates without utilizing feedback and self-correction. Whatever its de jure purposes, a bureaucracy's de facto purpose is limited to enhancing the security of its members. Bureaucracies control their members by convincing them that they are uncreative and can only survive as parasites. A bureaucracy is always threatened by anyone's creativity. All bureaucracies ultimately wish to destroy all creativity and live ina totally classical world. The firststep is to force everyone to ask permission of the bureaucracy in order to do anything creative in the bureaucracy's de jure area of authority and responsibility.

Certainty - A state of mind in which no doubt exists about some cause-and-effect relationships. It is unethical to be certain about anything except the existence of our own thoughts and perceptions, which are not cause-and-effect relationships. The need for certainty may be the fatal flaw in human nature. Through Creative Transformation, humanity can learn to cope with the insecurity of uncertainty. One cannot learn when one is certain.

Chaos - Total disorder. Where nothing has meaning or purpose and all is random. The lowest level of awareness. A patternless nothingness. It is postulated that the Quantum Field always brings order out of chaos in our universe.

Child - A child is a transitory being bridging the gap between amorality and morality. Children are always ethical for at least a while. When children become unethical, they may become immoral adults. Immoral adults can only have power by controlling children. Children are pliable and can just as easily become moral or immoral adults. An unethical society turns most of its children into immoral adults. An immoral society turns all of its children into immoral adults. The converse is true for moral and ethical societies. Man has been a child for most of his existence. Homo sapiens seems to be the first species of man with the capacity to produce moral adults. "Child" as here used is an ethical descriptor and not a chronological indicator. "Young child" is used to describe "children" in the more conventional sense. Young children are almost always "children" in the ethical sense. The converse is not necessarily true.

Civilization - A civilized people may be defined as a group of persons tied together by a common ethical code who systematically predict and control their collective ability to predict and control. The essential difference between civilized and uncivilized people is that among the uncivilized persons there is no systematic group effort to create machines for the benefit of the group as a whole which require several persons to operate and which may not be used for several months or even several years after construction is begun on them. It is this notion of long-range planning and concern for the creativity of future generations which distinguishes the civilized person from the barbarian, who typically never has any vision beyond tomorrow, or the savagewho lives entirely in the present. Thelonger into the future the planningis projected, the more civilized is the society. Therefore, a civilization never comes into being or survives unless it is guided by a cooperative group of persons who have a vision of and concern for the generations yet unborn. The vision of the future is always tied to the ethical code.

Communism - A socialist system with a rigid, unscientific, bureaucratic basis derived from Marxist and Leninist ideology. It propounds the materialistic ethic. The de facto ethic is to maximize the power of the Communist Party and its leaders. Glasnost and Perestroika are tolerated by some of the communist bureaucracies only because it is argued by some that these reforms are essential to reverse the obvious decay in communist society. Marx was merely a well-intentioned propounder of a false ideology. Lenin was the implementer of the most evil tyranny in history.

Connectors - Channels through which Information flows from one component of intelligence to another. In our bodies Connectors are represented by nerves.

Conscience - Our inner sense of right and wrong--truth and falsehood--which unconsciously guides us through our intuition. Our conscience is apparently always correct, and never fools us. We apparently only fool ourselves by substituting fear for conscience, and equating the two. Our conscience is produced by the interaction of our brain with the infinite-enfolded truth of quantum reality.

Conscious - Refers to that state of mind in which we can predict and control our own thoughts and perceptions. The conscious mind is the set of all our predictable and controllable thoughts and perceptions.

Conservative - Refers to any attitude which is intolerant of innovation. This characteristic exists on a continuum with adamant opposition to any innovation at one extreme and complete tolerance for any innovation at the other. (See Liberal)

Control - The deliberate causal formation of a predicted set of events. Control is essential to intelligence. Without control an entity is deprived of feedback and becomes incapable of correct prediction. Control is ethically neutral. It may be used creatively or destructively.

Cosmic Force - The "cosmic force" is a collective term for the joint operation of all natural laws. The cosmic force has two major components--evolution and entropy. All is an effect of the cosmic force.

Cosmic Moral Society - The Moral Society which results from the joining of two or more distinct Moral Societies with independent origins on different planets.

Creation - The deliberate organization of energy, matter, life and/or mind into new patterns which increase intelligence. The patterns may only be new to the creator; they are not necessarily original. Creation is the joint result of intelligence and ethics. All ethical persons are to some degree creative. Moral persons are extremely creative; they are the ones who create new, coherent models of the universe and engender new societies. Immoral persons can never create; they only destroy.

Creativity - The ability to organize the total environment--physical, biological and psychosocial--into new patterns which increase truth for at least one person, while not decreasing truth for any person. Creativity is a direct function of intelligence and ethics:

C = IE


C =Creativity in quanta of new knowledge generated per unit time. It ranges from infinity to negative infinity.

I =Intelligence in quanta of old knowledge controlled per unit time. It ranges from zero to infinity.

E =Ethics, a dimensionless quantity between -1 and +1 representing the fraction of our total energy spent decreasing truth (negative) or increasing truth (positive).

This equation is an approximation.

Critical Mass - The point at which the density and quantity of a substance is such that completely new effects take place. For example, a critical mass of ethical persons (4 men & 4 women) is necessary to create an Ethical State. A critical mass of moral persons is sufficient to engender a Moral Society and make evolution irreversible.

Culture - The total sum of extra-genetic information posessed by a people or by a civilization.

Cyborg - (Cybernetic Organism) An entity which incorporates a machine as an integral part of its structure. May be pictured as a robot with a person inside it who completely controls the robot and uses it to amplify and simulate his individual powers. Humanity is becoming a Cyborg.

Death - The state of maximum entropy for life. It is the state where the intelligence produced by life sinks to the level of matter. The preponderance of scientific evidence indicates that for all life forms death represents the total extinction of the ego. More generally "death" is a decomposition of a system into its components, e.g., a molecule into atoms, an atom into elementary particles, or a society into disorganized individuals. Death is essential to evolution by natural selection.

Decency - Persons are decent when they will not deliberately enhance their welfare at the expense of another person's welfare. Decent persons are ethical if and only if they interpret "welfare" as synonymous with creativity. Decent persons are unethical if and only if they interpret welfare as synonymous with happiness. Decent unethical persons increase entropy by destroying negative feedback for themselves and others. Indecent persons are always unethical, and increase entropy by destroying other persons' creativity as well as their own as a means of increasing their own happiness.

Decline - (Decay) A process by which the total collective creativity continuously decreases, while the entropy increases until the capacity to evolve disappears.

Democracy - A system of representative government in which the representatives are chosen by majorities in free elections. Elections are assumed to be free if and only if all persons are guaranteed personal freedom. It is assumed, ideologically, that freedom is a necessary and sufficient condition for progress. All democracies eventually are controlled by unethical demogogues who tell the masses the lies they wish to hear.

Democratic Ethic - The greatest good is that which makes for the greatest freedom for the greatest number; the rights of large majorities are absolute over small minorities.

DNA - (Deoxyribonucleic acid) A complex polymeric organic molecule in the form of a double helix. DNA molecules carry all the information for structuring all known life forns. All the information for structuring the body of a human being is contined in the DNA molecules of a single cell. The DNA molecules are the blueprint from which life can be structured. DNA is built on templates of RNA, although information transfer appears to normally go the other way.

Destruction - To decrease creativity by decreasing truth. This may be done by generating false information or degrading true information. Unethical persons destroy more than they create. Children may create or destroy. The more intelligent an unethical person is, the greater will be his capacity to destroy.

Destructiveness - The disorganization of the total environment into patterns which decrease the ability of any or all ethical persons to predict and control their total environment--physical, biological and psychosocial. Negative creativity. The decrease in ethics, truth, or creativity for any person.

Direct Perception - The clear realization of a pattern in nature, analogous to the perception of our own thoughts. Illusions of certainty are sometimes mistaken for Direct Perception. Direct Perception is valid only insofar as it enables us to predict and control in the objective world.

Disease - Any condition of an organism acquired through heredity or environment which decreases its intelligence, i.e., ability to predict its total environment--physical, biological and/or psychosocial.

Ecosphere - The region around a star in which it is possible for a planet with liquid water to exist. The sun's ecosphere extends from just inside the orbit of Earth to just outside the orbit of Mars.

Education - Any process which increases the creativity of those exposed to it, or any process which increases any organism's ability to predict and control by increasing or altering the information content of the organism without damaging ethics. In modern society, many alleged forms of "education" are destructive because they destroy ethics, although they may increase intelligence.

Effectors - That component of intelligence which generates events in the total environment. Within the body, Effectors are represented by our bones, muscles and connective tissues in general. Effectors directly alter the environment.

Ego - That part of us that takes its identity from our memory and experience. The ego is driven by fear and the desire to be happy--as opposed to the soul, which is driven by love and the desire to maximize creativity. The ego dies with our body; the soul lives on in the creativity we engender in others. (See Soul)

Emotion - A pre-programmed pattern of behavior which is primarily instinctual, i.e., genetic, in origin. All emotions, except love, are becoming increasingly destructive, i.e., they serve only to decrease creativity instead of to expand it. All emotions are useful for survival in a primitive, Darwinian environment when there is little knowledge at hand. Love is always a constructive emotion because it catalyzes the creative transfer of information, thereby inducing a higher order autopoiesis. When we substitute fear for creative action we become ever less creative. All emotions are combinations and permutations of love and fear.

Entertainment - Any process which increases the happiness of some persons without necessarily increasing the creativity of any person. Entertainment which increases creativity is called "Art."

Entropy - A condition of chaos as well as a force which increases the chaos in the universe. The entropic force drives mind toward matter and matter toward chaotic energy. Entropy manifests itself in mind by decreased intelligence and/or ethics. In humanity, entropy is measured by the amount of illusionary information and by the effectiveness of the mechanisms for limiting feedback. Entropy feeds upon itself and is negatively correlated with creativity. Creativity is sometimes called "negentropy."

Epiphenomenon - A phenomenon which arises as a not-readily predictable effect of many complex underlying phenomena. An epiphenomenon can in turn affect the effects which caused it. For example, life is an epiphenomenon of the infinite tangled hierarchy of protein creating DNA as DNA creates protein. Life in turn affects both protein and DNA. Similarly, consciousness is an epiphenomenon of the infinite tangled hierarchy of the brain modifying its field effect, the mind, as the mind modifies the brain and both becoming increasingly receptive to the infinite, true information in the implicate order through the potential of the quantum field.

Ethical - (Good) Behavior is ethical if and only if it is a strategy in the Game of Life. Therefore, only behavior which increases creativity is ethical. Persons are ethical if and only if they are increasing creativity. In other words, persons are ethical if, and only if, they play the Game of Life more often than they play the Game of Pleasure. To be ethical is to create. Ethical behavior is, therefore, synonymous with creativity; it is the highest form of intelligence. Only humanity has clearly and systematically exhibited ethical behavior, because only humanity has increased creativity as a species. Almost all other species only increase intelligence by mutating into new species. Virtually all human beings are ethical during their early childhood. Persons only become unethical by being subjected to the pressures of an unethical society, which manipulates and controls them through fear, and random entropy. The other higher primates, cetaceans, and elephants also have ethical elements in their behavior but they do not seem to systematically create.

Ethical Intelligence - The ability to predict and control the total environment creatively.

Ethical Principles - Logically derived principles that follow directly from the evolutionary ethic. ("We must do our best to maximize creativity.") The evolutionary ethic cannot be in logical error since it is an ultimate goal, not a means to any end. The derived ethical principles may be in logical error; we should follow them only if they lead to no ethical contradictions according to the dictates of our conscience and objective evidence. These principles lead to other intuitively proper maxims of conduct such as the Ten Commandments and other biblical imperatives, Buddha's Eight-Fold Way, the Sermon on the Mount, and the American Bill of Rights. The eight ethical principles follow: 1. Only actions or persons which increase creativity are ethical. 2. Any action or person which decreases anyone's creativity is unethical. 3. Unethical means can never achieve ethical ends. 4. Means which are not ends are never ethical. 5. It is unethical to tolerate destructiveness. 6. It is unethical to be certain. 7. It is ethical to doubt. 8. Inaction is unethical.

Ethics - Rules of optimal behavior. It may be shown logically that behavior is optimal if and only if it is a strategy in the Game of Life. The rules of the Game of Life are, therefore, the Ethics of Life and are the only true ethics. All other forms of behavior are unethical or trivial. Ethics occurs in life when an entity has intelligence about its own intelligence, and it can predict and control its own ability to predict and control. Ethics are the highest form of intelligence. Morality is the highest form of ethics. (See Good)

Evil - (Unethical) Refers to any action or thing which decreases creativity.

Evolution - (See Entropy) A condition of intelligence as well as a force which pulls everything in the universe toward greater intelligence and complexity. Evolution is the opposite of entropy. The evolutionary force pulls matter toward mind and mind toward ever greater intelligence. A level of evolution is measured by the degree of intelligence. The greater the intelligence of a being, the higher it is on the evolutionary scale. Evolution is a law of nature and not a coherent plan. Evolution has a direction of ever greater intelligence and certain properties; however, it is basically a random process because it always coexists with entropy. The higher a being is on the evolutionary scale, the less subject it is to entropy, ifit behaves ethically. Therefore,evolution catalyzes and deran-domizes itself through intellectualdevelopment in general and ethicsin particular.

Evolutionary Ethic - "We must do our best to maximize creativity."

Evolutionary Pressure - Refers to the propensity of natural selection to favor some mutations over others because of the current environmental opportunities that exist for those mutations. This has nothing to do with an outside directed force, conscious or otherwise. "Evolutionary Opportunities" would be a synonym. The biological response to environmental opportunities which favor certain types of mutations. The "pressure" pulls the species toward these opportunities. It does not push them forward. The pressure can be seen as a pull from the future.

Falsehood - Informationthatdecreasesour ability to predict and/or control any part of the total environment when we believe it.

Family - A group of beings tied together by mutual love. (See Immediate and Extended Family.)

Fear - The belief we cannot create. Fear originates as an emotionalpre-programming of the R-com-plex, that predisposes us to fight orflee in the face of danger. (SeeEmotion.)

Feedback - Refers to the perception of the consequences of our actions. Positive feedback refers to perception of our successes, i.e., when the total environment was in fact predicted and controlled. Negative feedback refers to the perception of our mistakes, i.e., to attempts at prediction and control which failed.

Freedom - (Liberty) Refers to a state in which we can do and say as we please so long as we do not in the process interfere with the right of another person to do and say as he pleases. When there is a conflict, a compromise is reached which maximizes creativity for both persons. In general, free persons can do as they please so long as they do not impose undeserved harm on others. Freedom gives us the right to destroy our own creativity, but never the right to destroy anyone else's creativity.

Game - A set of rules of how to behave in order to win a specified stake. The stake may be symbolic or tangible. A game has no purpose beyond itself. All persons play games either consciously or unconsciously. Every game is either a variation on the Game of Life or a variation on the Game of Pleasure. For any given person, the same game may be a variation on the Game of Life at one time and a variation on the Game of Pleasure at another time.

Game of Life - A game in which the stakes are ever-expanding creativity. The Game of Life is the pivotal point between good and evil, life and death. The Game of Life is the basis of all evolution. To play the Game of Life is to increase creativity. To deliberately play the Game of Life is to increase creativity as best we can for the rest of our life.

Game of Pleasure - A game which serves only to increase happiness, never creativity. Persons who play the Game of Pleasure are the major source of entropy for the human race. Players of the Game of Pleasure make themselves and others increasingly unethical until they become immoral. All players of the Game of Pleasure unconsciously long for death.

Generalist - (See Specialist) A generalist is a person who is aware of the total environment--physical, biological, and psychosocial--in approximately equal degrees. Generalists have tried to learn, in approximately equal amounts, all of human knowledge. They attempt to maintain sphericity by not developing great depth in one area while still ignorant of another area. It is possible for a generalist to have more depth in all areas than a specialist has in only one area. We generalize by learning what we know least. We specialize by learning more about what we know most, increasingly ignoring what we know least.

Genotype - The genetic make-up of an organism which interacts with the external environment to produce the overt phenotype.

Good - (Ethical) Refers to any action or thing which increases creativity.

Great - That is great which significantly expands the creativity of others. This applies to art, science, orpersons.Greatnessimpliesextreme

ly important social morality.

Guru - A teacher whom we revere and trust to the point of surrendering our conscience to him or her, thereby letting the guru determine for us what is right or wrong. This is destructive for both the guru and the disciple. We should always follow the dictates of our own conscience and not abdicate our conscience to anyone, nor allow anyone to abdicate their conscience to us.

Happiness - The state of mind which results from being in the process of fulfilling our desires. The intensity of happiness is directly proportional to the strength of our desires and the rate at which we fulfill them. In the absence of desire there is neitherhappiness nor unhappiness; the moreethical a person is, the more thatperson's happiness comes from max-imizing creativity. Happiness and creativity are not mutually exclusive; neither are they synonymous.

Health - The physical and mental condition conducive to predicting and controlling the total environment. Whatever diminishes our ability to predict and control the total environment diminishes our health. When this occurs through physiological change, such as a broken leg, then it is our physical health that is diminished. When this occurs through a change in the information content of mind, then it is mental health that has been diminished and we say that the person is neurotic. When there is a combination of deleterious physiological and information changes in the nervous system, the person may become psychotic. The best objective indicator of health is creativity. Unethical persons are neither healthy nor creative.

Hedonism - A sense of values which gives the highest value to pleasure and happiness. Hedonism represents the pursuit of happiness to the exclusion of creativity. A hedonist seeks to maximize happiness above all else. The pursuit of happiness without creativity leads only to death.

Heritability - A statistical notion based on the theory of analysis of variance. It is expressed by a number between zero and one. A heritability of zero indicates that the phenotypic differences between statistically differentiable groups are not due to genotypic differences, but are solely determined by the environment of the organism. A heritability of one indicates that the environmental differences between the groups in question produce no significant differences with respect to a specified trait; all differences concerning the trait are assumed to be due to genetic differences.

Homo moralensis - Moral Man. The latest development in Homo sapiens represented by persons who deliberately play the Game of Life. The successor to Teilhard de Chardin's Homo progressivus. All Homo moralensis are in an Ethical State.

Homo progressivus - Progressive man. A term used by Teilhard de Chardin to connote persons who perceive and value human progress and have faith in mankind's future. The successor to Homo sapiens. Persons capable of entering the Ethical State.

Homo sapiens - The species of man which has been dominant for about 50,000 years. Cro-Magnon was a Homo sapiens; Neanderthal was not, although they could probably interbreed, as can lions and tigers.

Ideology - An ideology is an interdependent set of ideological beliefs. An ideological belief is a belief in a cause and effect relationship which is not based on scientific evidence. All superstitions are ideological beliefs. All religions are ideologies. Marxism and most of what is called "social science" are ideologies. Ideologies are not necessarily wrong, merely unscientific.

Ignorance - A lack of important true information within the nervous system of an organism.

Illusionary Information - Refers to a belief which has no basis in reality. It can occur by imagining a model of cause and effect relationships which cannot be substantiated scientifically. Most illusionary information results from accepting the imagined model of someone else as true when it is in fact false. Skepticism is the best defense against illusionary information. Systematic, creative skepticism is the basis of the scientific method.

Imagination - That component of intelligence which generates Information independently of the Sensors. Imagined events are used to complete the pattern of sensed events so that there are no inconsistencies. The Effectors test the validity of the completed pattern by generating new events until all the sensed events are consistent. This is how creativity grows. Imagination has never been localized as have other components of intelligence. It seems to be associated with the neocortex in general and the frontal lobes in particular. The more ethical a person is, the more imaginative he seems to be. It may be that Imagination is produced in part by the moral field of the Cosmic Moral Society and that receptivity to this field depends on ethics. The moral field and the quantum field may be synonymous.

Immediate (Nuclear) Family - A family limited to our parents, children, spouse, and siblings. (See Family)

Immoral - A person is immoral if and only if he deliberately declines the challenge of the Game of Life and consciously chooses to play the Game of Pleasure. Immoral persons only play the Game of Pleasure. Persons become immoral by becoming increasingly unethical until all their actions are strategies in the Game of Pleasure. Immoral persons never play the Game of Life again; they have irreversible entropy. Persons are made immoral by an unethical society. Only highly intelligent persons can become immoral. Most unethical persons are children, not immoral adults.

Immoral Community - The Immoral Community is that group of persons who seek power without creativity. When these persons are decent, they seek to make others happy. When they are indecent, they seek only to make themselves happy. The Immoral community is represented by the "Establishment" in every country. the Immoral Community serves only to increase the total entropy of the human race.

Important - Refers to any activity or thing which significantly affects creativity either positively or negatively. "Unimportant" is synonymous with "trivial."

Industry - A collective term for any organization which serves to produce any goods and services other than entertainment and education.

Information - The symbolic representation of events and their relationships. Information is an essential component in the structure of intelligence. An entity devoid of all Information would have no intelligence. All the Information in our bodies, except instinct, is produced by the Sensors or by the Imagination.

Innovation - The production of any new information or behavior.If it is creative it is an invention; if not, it is a trivial or deleterious innovation. Humanity has the capacity to produce more creative than non-creative innovations. All other existing species seem to produce creative and non-creative innovations equally.

Intelligence - The ability to predict and control the total environment--physical, biological, and psychosocial. Intelligence is a structure with discrete components, namely, Will, Memory, Logic, Imagination, Sensors, Effectors, Connectors, and Information. Each of the components is essential to Intelligence. All the components, except for Information, seem to have a largely hereditary basis. (See pages 12 to 17.)

Invention - The creation of a new machine or new behavior which decreases the entropy of the biosphere. A new machine or behavior which increases entropy is called adeleteriousinnovation,notaninven-tion. Innovations must increase the net creativity of the universe to be true. Not all innovation is creative.

Investigator - Any person who systematically seeks new knowledge on any subject(s).

Joy - A condition of extreme happiness. Joy is happiness without anxiety; it is a happiness which we have no fear of ever losing. It seems that only the deliberate expansion of creativity for ourselves and others produces joy.

Knowledge - A critical mass of true information which enables us to predict and control something. Our knowledge is a function of our innate intelligence and our environment. The geometry of our knowledge (i.e., a spherical or an ellipsoidal surface) is dependent on ethics; the depth (volume of the ellipsoid) depends on our intelligence. True information becomes knowledge only when it is a component of intelligence. Knowledge comes from creativity.

Leftist - Refers to a belief that behavior is determined primarily by environment and not heredity. This belief exists on a continuum. The extreme leftist believes that heredity plays no role in shaping behavior and that environment is all important. The extreme rightist believes the opposite. (See Rightist)

Liberal - Refers to any attitude which is tolerant of innovation. This characteristic exists on a continuum with the extreme conservative--intolerant of all innovations--at one extreme and the extreme liberal--tolerant of all innovations--at the other. (See Conservative)

Liberty - (See Freedom)

Life - That effect of matter which produces an intelligence of non-self and causes intelligence to expand and grow until it produces intelligence about intelligence. At this time mind begins to develop rapidly until it ceases to be an effect of life and becomes an effect of itself. Living creatures all have the capacity to make choices. The more intelligent they are the more choices they have. Matter cannot make choices. Its behavior is predetermined. (See Mind)

Logic - That component of intelligence which determines when different quanta of information and/or knowledge are inconsistent. Logic is a filter which tells the Will which events are inconsistent in order that new events may be generated until all events are consistent. All events are consistent if and only if a person is infinitely intelligent. Therefore, all events are never consistent. A person who sees inconsistent events as consistent is either psychotic, ideological, or both. Logic appears to be a function of parts of the cortex.

Love - Refers to a type of behavior as well as to an emotion. As an emotion it is a preprogrammed state of mind which predisposes us to behave in such a way as to enhance the welfare of another even at the cost of our own welfare. When welfare is seen as synonymous with happiness, then the love is perverse and unethical. When welfare is seen as synonymous with creativity, then love is natural and ethical. Ethical love is the only antidote to fear. No one can ever lose anything of value by loving or being loved ethically. Love is the desire to increase, and the act of increasing, the creativity of another.

Machine - A manufactured device which converts one form of energy into another. Language, clothing, computers, houses, tools, and organizations are examples of machines. The machine is an essential component in human evolution. Since the advent of Homo sapiens human evolution has depended almost entirely on the development of ever better machines and the increase in ethics.

Materialistic Ethic - "That which makes for the greatest material security for the greatest number is the greatest good." From each according to his ability, to each according to his need.

Measure Zero - A concept from settheory which says, very loosely speaking, that a point set has measure zero if there exists a finite or a countably infinite set of open or closed intervals of length l or smaller that cover all the points in the set, and the total length L of thesum of these intervals, L=l, lli=1for all l, can be made arbitrarily small. For example, if l=1/2 andL=(1/2)=1-(1/2) for all N,i=1and if N is an integer, then as N goesto infinity, the sum 1-(1/2) goes to 1. Therefore using only elementary algebra, we can show that for any X0 and N=any integer largerthan 0, we have L=(1/(1+X))=i=1(1/X)[1-(1/(1+X))], 1/X-(1/X)(1/(1+X))1/XasNapproachesinfinity. In the previous example, X=1. Therefore, all finite or countably infinite subsets have measure zero because we can multiply the preceding sum by any arbitrarily small positive number to get a sum of intervals that is arbitrarily small, if l=1/(1+X). There are also non-countably infinite sets of measure zero, such as the mathematically well-known Cantor Set.

Trivia is a set of measure zero because in the long run almost all acts either increase or decrease creativity. An act which never decreases anyone's knowledge, but imparts zero knowledge forever, will decrease creativity by wasting the energy and time of those commiting the act. Therefore, trivia is at best a set of measure zero in the short run and an empty set in the long run.

Memory - That component of intelligence which stores Information in retrievable addressable units. The address is determined in part by the nature of the Information and its relationship to other Information. In our own bodies Memory seems to be a process by which molecules are altered in our brain by sensed or imagined information, and the brain is thereby physiologically altered. It may be that memory is holographic so that all the information of the brain is stored in each brain cell. (280)

Metazoa - Multicellular animals as opposed to Protozoa, which are unicellular. Sponges, insects, fish and humans are all metazoa.

Military - A collective term for any organization which serves to impose the will of any authority by force.

Mind - The set of all our thoughts and perceptions. Insofar as thoughts and perceptions are predictable and controllable, the mind is conscious. Insofar as thoughts and perceptions are unpredictable and uncontrollable, the mind is unconscious. We know with certainty only the existence of our own minds. We infer from the behavior of other organisms and our own behavior and mind that other organisms have minds similar to our own insofar as they behave similarly to us. From this inference we can develop a mind model of behavior which can objectively be shown to enable us to predict and control behavior. The mind model is analogous to the model of gravity. We cannot perceive directly the existence of gravity, but it is a model which enables us to predict and control. Gravity is an effect of mass as mind is an effect of the brain. Gravity affects mass just as mind affects the brain. Any mind may be an interactive effect of a living body and the Quantum Field.

Minimax Strategy - A plan for minimizing our risks by obtaining the best of the worst in a game. In the Game of Life the worst is entropy, therefore, the minimax strategy is also the uniformly optimal strategy which maximizes our creativity while minimizing our entropy. In the Game of Pleasure the worst is unhappiness. The best of the worst is extinction. Death is, therefore, the minimax strategy in the Game of Pleasure. Following the rules of the Game of Life is a uniformly optimal strategy in both the Game of Life and the Game of Pleasure (see Uniformly Optimal). Exclusively minimax strategies lead to death and are followed only by those who are driven by fear.

Moral - A type of behavior in which all actions either increase objective truth or are trivial. Persons become moral if and only if they see the maximal expansion of creativity as the only purpose of life and are indifferent to anyone's happiness, including their own. The more intelligent moral persons are, the more creative they will be. Moral persons never behave unethically again after becoming moral. Moral persons are devoid of fear. They always behave lovingly toward all persons, including their worst enemies. No human being appears to ever have been moral. We approach morality asymptotically by becoming increasingly ethical and intelligent.

Moral Community - The Moral Community is that group of persons who are primarily concerned with expanding creativity. The Moral Community includes artists, scientists and technologists. A technologist is anyone concerned with producing goods and services which increase creativity. Physicians, farmers, teachers, laborers and mechanics are all examples of technologists. The Moral Community represents the true workers of the world who are exploited by the Immoral Community.

Moral Sense - The genetically determined program, apparently unique to the human species, which makes humans value creativity above happiness. The Moral Sense is easily perverted into self-righteousness and intolerance by unethical persons who believe they have found ultimate, absolute truth when in fact they have only found self-deception.

Music - The purest art. It is devoid of conscious meaning and operates entirely at the unconscious level to communicate the creativity of a culture by patterns of abstract sounds, which are perceived as beautiful.

Mysticism - Any systematic attempt to obtain truth through direct perception independently of scientific evidence and processes. Mystical truth is always of subjective origin. When mystical insights are supported by scientific evidence, then the mystical truth becomes objective. There is no conflict between mysticism and science as long as mystical insights are not held to represent a higher reality than objective truth. It is in the nature of mysticism that its specialized adherents tend to substitute subjective truth for objective truth and in the process become practitioners of psychofraud. All the major religions and traditional ethical and psychotherapeutic systems seem to have a mystical basis. Creative Transformation uses mysticism in conjunction with science. What all mystics have in common is a belief in a higher source of moral order and greater knowledge than humanity in the universe and that humanity can communicate with the source through ethical behavior.

Nature-Nurture Problem - The problem of determining whether differences between groups or individuals are due to heredity (nature) or environment (nurture).

Neuroses - Learned patterns of behavior which decrease a person's ability to predict and control his total environment. Uncontrollable emotionalism is not necessarily neurotic unless it has been caused by some learned experience; e.g., persons who are filled with hate for some particular ethnic group are neurotic because it is necessary to learn to hate a whole ethnic group, and this behavior decreases creative intelligence. Because neurotic behavioris learned behavior, it is susceptibleto modification by all types of psy-chofraud, as well as Creative Trans-formation and other learningexperiences.

No÷space - The abstract space of mind where each dimension represents an orthogonal area of knowledge. For convenience, noospace may be seen in three dimensions--the physical, biological, and psychosocial. In reality, noospace probably has infinitely many orthogonal dimensions. Only by relating each dimension of noospace to all other dimensions can creativity be maximized. Knowledge can be specialized, but creativity is holistic.

No÷sphere - (no"-os'-fer) n. [Gr. noos, mind, and sphaira, a body whose surface always has all its points equidistant from a single point], the envelope of collective human mind which surrounds the Earth. A word first used by Pierre Teilhard de Chardin to describe some aspects of the Moral Society. (See Biosphere)

Nucleons - Protons and neutrons. All atoms have a nucleus of at least one proton with zero or more neutrons.

Optimal - Refers to the extremal (maximum or minimum) of an effect in a desired direction. Something is optimal when it is the best there is and there is nothing better. Optimality is not necessarily a unique property. In a game there may be many optimal strategies. When persons behave optimally it means that they have done the best they could. It does not mean that someone else might not have done better.

Organization - A group of persons tied together by a set of commonly accepted objectives and rules. All organizations have the propensity for being turned into bureaucracies, if they are deprived of feedback. All bureaucracies are organizations, but not all organizations are bureaucracies. A family is an organization tied together by mutual love. Organizations are turned into bureaucracies solely through fear.

Orthogonal - At right angles. When events or actions are orthogonal, then each can occur without necessarily affecting the other. However, orthogonal events are not necessarily independent.

Parasite - (parasitical human being) Any entity which produces pollution and consumes resources without in any way contributing to anyone's creativity. In general a parasite has higher entropy than its ancestors and can survive only at the expense of an entity that has lower entropy.

Perception - That property of mind which integrates sensed information into a meaningful whole so that knowledge results.

Personal Morality - Refers to the deliberate desire to increase one's own personal creativity. Personal morality must coexist with social morality or it will atrophy. Without social morality personal morality may become perverted into a desire solely for personal power. All ethi-cal persons have both componentsof morality, but not necessarilyin equal amounts. (See SocialMorality)

Personal Power - Control over the environment used solely as a means of producing personal security. Destructive control over otherpersons.

Perverse - Refers to any action or person which seeks to increase happiness in such a way that creativity is not increased. A pervert is any person who systematically increases his own happiness without increasing anyone's creativity, including his own.

Phenotype - The external appearance of an organism in terms of its morphology and overt behavior. (See Genotype)

Phylum - A group of life forms characterized by unique properties which make them distinct from all other life forms. For example, arthropods are characterized by jointed legs and a chitinous exoskelton; chordates by the notochord; and ethical beings, including humans, by intelligence about their own intelligence.

Power - The ability to control the environment, not necessarily creatively.

Predict and Control - Refers to the essential property of intelligent organisms by which events are foreseen and made to comply with the organism's needs and desires. The ability to predict cannot exist independently of the ability to control and vice-versa. Although humanity could predict astronomical events long before it could control them (as in the case of artificial satellites), it could not have predicted any astronomical events if it could not have controlled its observational procedures by controlling its own biological Sensors (eyes, ears, etc.) and the creation of amplifiers of its Sensors, such as clocks, calendars and telescopes. Any event which is controlled is by definition predicted. Therefore, control is a higher property of intelligence than prediction, although each property is essential to the other.

Prediction - Imagining an event correctly before it is directly perceived. Prediction is essential to creativity. Without the ability to predict an entity could not see the patterns which tie its perceptions together; it would have neither a past nor a future but would exist only in the present in a state of continuous destruction.

Probability - Refers to the degree of confidence that a person has that a cause and effect relationship is true. Zero probability implies that the person is certain that the relationship is false. A probability of one implies that the person is certain that the relationship is true. Ethical persons always place a probability greater than zero but less than one on the validity of all cause- and-effect relationships in nature outside of the existence of their own thoughts and perceptions, which are not cause-and-effect relationships.

Progress - The process of ever-expanding creativity within the universe. The progress of the human race is indicated by humanity's increasing ability to predict and control the total environment. This progress is least evident in the psychosocial environment, but even here it occurs. Only immorality can stop human progress.

Psychofraud - An ideology about human behavior. Any model which purports to predict and control human behavior and cannot be scientifically verified is psychofraud. Examples of psychofraud are found in religions, political ideologies, and forms of psychotherapy.

Psychosis - Compulsive destructive behavior. An extreme form of neurosis which involves organic factors. These predispose the psychotic to acquire information which grossly distorts reality. Unlike neuroses, psychoses cannot be cured unless basic organic factors have also been corrected. Some forms of psychotic behavior are at least partially corrected with vitamins and drugs.

Psychotherapy - A process for replacing false information, which decreases a person's ability to predict and control his total environment, with true information which increases his ability to predict and control his total environment. Psychotherapy is a special type of education; it does not necessarily include the use of drugs or surgery, although these techniques can also change behavior and possibly even increase creativity. The best criterion for the success of psychotherapy is an increase in the net creativity of the person. Most of the treatments called psychotherapy seem to consist mainly of psychofraud.

Programming - The encoding of information into a system. Human beings are totally programmed by their heredity, their environment, and their choices.

Quantum Field - An information-carrying field which permeates the universe and follows the patterns of Schroedinger's equation. The field modulates the transfer of information between our universe and the implicate order. The field is "nonlocal" and operates outside of our time and space. The receptivity of any object to the Quantum Field is proportional to its degree of evolution. The more generalized, intelligent, and ethical the object, the more information it will integrate through the Quantum Field. Evolution is a process for producing ever more intelligent quantum objects that increasingly derandomize the quantum field.

Quantum Object - An object whose mass is sufficiently small that it will be significantly affected by the quantum field. Larger objects can only be affected by the quantum field if a critical mass of the smaller objects constituting the larger objects have coherence between them, e.g., lasers, superconductors, microchips, the human brain, and an autopoietic octet. The more evolved a massive quantum object with internal coherence, the more creatively it integrates information from the quantum field.

Quantum Reality - A reality which exists outside of our time and space, and is linked to it through our consciousness. Quantum Reality has within it infinite, enfolded truth (the implicate order), which, through our consciousness and in other ways, affects the reality of our own time and space (the explicate order). See the work of David Bohm.

Racism - A belief that the future behavior of a person can be inferred from the a priori expected behavioral characteristics of the racial group to which the person belongs. Racism neglects to allow for widespread individual differences within races. Science indicates that there is a wide overlap in the behavior of all races; therefore, racism is unethical.

Random - Refers to a process whose outcome cannot be predicted with certainty. Any process of which we have incomplete information is random. Nature can only be exactly predicted when we possess all knowledge, i.e., when we are totally aware of everything. For this reason, nature will always seem random to any finite being. However, the accuracy, precision and extent of our predictions and control can increase asymptotically, albeit not smoothly, toward perfection within quantum limits. The randomness is within ourselves, not necessarily within the external universe. The cosmic force will always seem random to any finite being because entropy and evolution coexist in infinite extension and we can never have complete knowledge of either process. The randomness of the quantum world is due to hidden variables, which are hidden because of our own fear and lack of ethics. Only morality can surmount the uncertainty principle, by liberating our imagination and opening our mind to the infinite truth of the implicate order. The uncertainty principle is part of the cosmic quarantine.

Rational - Any action or thing which is logically self-consistent and does not involve internal contradictions. In the real world things are only relatively rational, since almost every model and person has some internal contradictions, although they may not be apparent. This results mainly from a lack of scientific knowledge, not necessarily poor logic. Newton's model of the universe was more rational than that of Aristotle but less rational than that of Einstein, although all these models were highly rational in relationship to the more popular models of their day. Only moral, scientific mystics can be totally rational.

Real Time - A term from process control technology by which information is obtained, processed and acted upon almost as soon as it is available, i.e. almost simultaneously. As the delay times in obtaining essential information lengthen, the process ceases to be "real time." A synonym for "real time" would be "almost simultaneously."

Reality - That which we can (1) predict and control or (2) know that we can neither predict nor control. Our thoughts and perceptions are always real but not the models we create about what causes our thoughts and perceptions. Only that which is true is real. Only models which enable us to predict and control are true. Reality is anything that increases our creativity when we believe it or decreases our creativity when we do not believe it.

Relevant - Anything which expands creativity is relevant. That which best serves to integrate and expand the totality of knowledge is the most relevant. Relevance implies something that is both important and ethical.

Religion - Any ideology which (1) seeks to explain the basic cause and purposes of the universe and (2) stresses means for predicting and controlling our thoughts and perceptions beyond the limits of our lives. In religion, the most important truths are assumed to be known, and new truths are accepted only insofar as they support the basic assumptions. Religions are an ethical attempt to create a coherent model of the universe and humanity's relationship to it. Religions become evil only when they are closed systems which do not accept information contradicting the basic ideology. It is the Moral Sense which continuously causes us to seek the one true religion. It is the immoral sense (fear) which makes us believe we have found it.

Rightist - Refers to a belief that human behavior is determined more by heredity than by environment. The characteristic exists on a continuum with the extreme rightist believing that all behavior is determined entirely by heredity and that environment has no effect whatsoever on behavior. The extreme leftist believes that all different behavior is determined entirely by environment. (See Leftist, Liberal, Conservative)

Robot - A machine which is self-directed, and can predict and control its environment, but has no creativity or capacity for ethical choice.

RNA - (ribonucleic acid) RNA is a constituent of all living cells and viruses. It has the capacity to store information. DNA can be built on templates of RNA. RNA can carry information between DNA molecules.

Sanity - That property of mind which permits it to cope rationally with problems and to see things as they objectively exist.

Science - A method for increasing truth which is based on the principle that all hypotheses and theories are to be held in doubt until proven tentatively true by controlled experimentation. Hypotheses and theories are held to be tenatively true only so long as they make correct predictions. Those hypotheses and theories which make the most accurate and consistently correct predictions are the "truest." In science only that which works is true. Truth is always tentative and incomplete. The main function of science is to help us distinguish between true and false ideas.

Scientific Generalist - (See Generalist)

Scientific Illiterate - A person who has little or no scientific knowledge, i.e., knowledge obtained through the scientific method. In general, a person who has no sytematic knowledge of mathematics, physical science or biology is a scientific illiterate. In general, scientific illiterates are victims and practitioners of psychofraud. Specialized scientists tend to succumb to ideology in those parts of the environment about which they have little or no scientific knowledge. Since there is so little scientific knowledge of the psychosocial environment, this is the major area of ideology and psychofraud. All persons tend to create the illusion that they can predict and control their total environment. Therefore they fill their minds with psychofraud and ideology when they are not scientific generalists. Scientifically illiterate mystics as well as scientists who do not apply scientific method to their mystical beliefs are filled with self-delusion.

Security - A state of mind in which persons believe they have or can readily obtain all they need and have no fear of losing what they already have. External security as well as external insecurity are always illusions. The only true security comes from within through creativity and the sole desire to expand creativity.

Selfless - Refers to a mental state in which personal security and happiness are seen as secondary to a higher purpose. The only purpose which seems to have the potential for producing selflessness is the pursuit of creativity as an end in itself. We can only become selfless by taking our identity from our soul rather than our ego.

Sensors - That component of intelligence through which some of the events in the total environment are represented symbolically by Information which is stored in the Memory. In the body, Sensors are visual, auditory, olfactory, kinesthetic, etc.

Sexism - An ideology analogous to racism, which ascribes behavioral characteristics to a person solely on the basis of sex. The scientific evidence implies that, although the genetic potential for various types of behavior may not be identically distributed in each sex, the full gamut of human behavior, other than the reproductive functions, probably exists within each sex. The best way to avoid both racism and sexism is to accept each person solely on the basis of individual merit and to avoid a priori judgments. Sexism is unethical.

Social Morality - Refers to the deliberate desire to help increase the creativity of others. Social moraility must co-exist with personal morality or it will become perverted into immoral decency, whereby the person seeks to increase solely the happiness of others. All moral persons have both components of morality, though not necessarily to the same degree. (See Personal Morality)

Social Science - Any of the numerous attempts to develop scientific models of human behavior, e.g., economics, psychology, and sociology. In fact, most "social science" models are psychofraud which have never been objectively shown to predict or control human behavior, although some of these models, such as Marxism and Fascism, are temporarily popular and "faddish" in the academic community.

Socialism - A socio-political system in which every person is forcibly held responsible for the welfare of every other person. The Ethical State is a voluntary socialistic system for each octet, but it does not have an ideological basis as do most of the existing systems which today call themselves "socialistic." In all current socialistic systems, "welfare" is considered synonomous with "happiness." In the Ethical State, "welfare" is synonomous with "creativity." It seems that socialism will not work practically or ethically for groups larger than an octet. Forced socialism, as occurs in democracies and communist states, is unethical. Only libertarianism is politically ethical.

Soul - That part of us which takes its identity from our creative actions and is driven solely by love and our desire to maximize creativity. The soul is our true self, which must merge and become one with our ego if we are to be creatively transformed. Unlike the ego, which dies with our body, the soul is immortal, and lives on in the creativity we engender in others. (See Ego)

Specialist - A specialist is a person who has developed depth of knowledge in one area at the cost of being ignorant in other areas. The specialist differs from the generalist not because of what he knows, butbecause of what he does not know. It is possible for a specialist to be more intelligent and have more knowledge in every area than a generalist. When a generalist and a specialist are of comparable intelligence, the generalist is always more creative. It is possible for a generalist to be more creative than a specialist in the specialist's own field, even when the latter is much more intelligent than the former. If a generalist is represented by a sphere and a specialist by an ellipsoid, then their total knowledge, which is a product of their intelligence, is represented by their surface area. Their creativity is a product of both their intelligence and their ethics and is represented by their volume. A sphere or hypersphere has maximum volume for a given surface area for any figure of fixed dimensionality. (See pp. 17-18, 123-25.)

Speciation - Refers to the process by which a new generalized phylum starting with a single species fans out into the biosphere by having suceeding generations adapt until they can fit into one and only one ecological niche. Each adaptation represents a new species which is forever separated from its former brothers.

Symbiosis - Refers to a process by which two different processes or life forms combine in such a way that their joint entropy is decreased or their collective intelligence is increased in such a way that the joint whole is greater than the sum of its parts.

Symbol - Something that stands for something else and in the process encodes information. Letters in an alphabet are manufactured symbols of sounds. Sequences of RNA are non-manufactured, natural symbols that encode information for synthesizing proteins. Everything that exists encodes information within its structure. A machine is its ownsymbol, a specific manifestation of information for manufacturing more copies of itself.

Tachyons - Hypothesized subatomic particles which always travel at speeds in excess of the speed of light. Tachyons accelerate by losing energy until they are traveling at infinite speeds when thay have zero energy. Although the existence of tachyons seems theoretically feasible, they have not as yet been experimentally detected. Tachyons were originally independently postulated by Gerald Feinberg, Isaac Asimov, and Soviet Scientists.

Technology - A scientific process for designing, building, and/or operating machines; the application of science to control of the environment.

Total Environment - Total environment includes all that can be perceived or conceived. The total environment may be divided for convenience into (1) the physical which includes all of matter and energy; (2) the biological which includes all life forms, and (3) the psychosocial which includes all activities of the mind and the behavior of life forms. These divisions are only a convenience which should vanish with time. Ultimately, it should be shown that matter, life and mind are all interrelated phenomena produced by a single cosmic force. In recent years, the apparent discontinuities between life and matter have been disappearing. Eventually all psychosocial phenomena should be understood in the same manner.

Trivial - Refers to activity which neither increases or decreases creativity. Trivial activity will increase entropy. In the long run, trivial activity may decrease creativity indirectly by increasing entropy to the point where creativity is no longer possible. Trivia is a set of measure zero. Almost all actionsare either creative or destructive. (See Measure Zero)

Truth - Information about a cause and effect relationship is true if and only if it increases one's ability to predict and control the environment when one believes it. All models of cause and effect relationships involve error. Therefore truth is a goal which is approached asymptotically as Information grows. Whoever pursues truth will get ever closer to it. Only an entity who has infinite intelligence knows absolute truth. Even apparently tautological statements may involve semantic errors. (See Falsehood)

Tunneling - A quantum mechanical process by which a quantum object can penetrate an energy barrier whose repulsive energy is greater than that carried by the quantum object. This is due to the probabilistic nature of quantum events by which it is theoretically possible, i.e., has a probability greater than zero, for a quantum object to be on the other side of a barrier which it cannot penetrate according to classical theory.

Unconscious - Refers to that state of mind in which we have unpredictable and uncontrollable thoughts. The imagination seems to work primarily at the unconscious level. (See Conscious)

Unethical - (Evil) Behavior is unethical if and only if it decreases at least one persons's creativity. All unethical behavior is a strategy in the Game of Pleasure. A person is unethical when he plays the Game Of Pleasure more often than he plays the Game of Life. Unethical behavior always increases entropy.

Unethical Society - A society is unethical when most of its members are unethical and it is structured to decrease creativity. Every nation is an unethical society or an incipient unethical society. Societies become unethical through bureaucracy,ideology, fear, and unethicalleadership.

Uniformly Optimal Strategy - A uniformly optimal strategy is a plan for minimizing our risks while simultaneously maximizing expected gains. Following the rules of the Game of Life is a uniformly optimal strategy in both the Game of Pleasure and the Game of Life. (See Minimax)

Will - That component of intelligence which directs the flow of Information to the other components. Will is a vector quantity with a direction and a magnitude. The direction determines what type of information will be processed, and how; the magnitude determines the resolve toprocess the information. The Imagination and the Effectors generate events which provide a critical mass of Information until knowledge exists. Under the direction of the Ethical Will, all the components of intelligence operate to expand creativity continuously. Under direction of our animal (pre-ethical) Will, all the components of intelligence operate to increase happiness with no concern for creativity. Will in our bodies appears to be an effect of the three most primitive brains and may be unrelated to the neo-cortex. Our Ethical Will seems to be entirelya product of the neo-cortex. TheWill operates at both the consciousand unconscious levels. Ethics pro-gram the Will in the evolutionarydirection.

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ę John David Garcia, 1991, All rights Reserved.